Statistics and studies referenced on this website are from the following resources:
General Effects of Secondhand Smoke
American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts & Figures 2009. Atlanta, Ga. 2009.
American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts & Figures 2010. Atlanta, Ga. 2010.
American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts & Figures 2011. Atlanta, Ga. 2011.
American Lung Association. Secondhand Smoke. Accessed at http://www.lungusa.org/stop-smoking/about-smoking/health-effects/secondhand-smoke.html on November 3, 2010.
Betts KS. Secondhand Suspicions: Breast Cancer and Passive Smoking. Environ Health Perspect. 2007;115:A136–A143.
Borland R, Yong H-H, Siahpush M, et al. Support for and reported compliance with smoke-free restaurants and bars by smokers in four countries: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey. Tobacco Control.2006;15(suppl_3):34–41.
California Environmental Protection Agency. Health Effects of Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke. June 2005. Accessed at www.oehha.ca.gov/air/environmental_tobacco/pdf/app3partb2005.pdf on November 3, 2010.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health. Current Intelligence Bulletin 54: Environmental Tobacco Smoke in the Workplace — Lung Cancer and Other Health Effects. 1991. (Publication No. 91-108) Accessed at www.nasdonline.org/document/1194/d001030/environmental-tobacco-smoke-in-the-workplace-lung-cancer.html on November 3, 2010.
Environmental Protection Agency. Respiratory Health Effects of Passive Smoking: Lung Cancer and Other Disorders. Washington, DC: Environmental Protection Agency; 1992. (Report # EPA/600/6-90/006F) Accessed at: http://cfpub2.epa.gov/ncea/cfm/recordisplay.cfm?deid=2835 on November 3, 2010.
Dreyfuss JH. Thirdhand smoke identified as potent, enduring carcinogen. CA Cancer J Clin. 2010 Jul-Aug;60(4):203-4.
Mennella JA, Yourshaw LM, Morgan LK. Breastfeeding and smoking: short-term effects on infant feeding and sleep.Pediatrics. 2007;120:497–502.
Pirkle JL, Flegal KM, Bernert JT, et al. Exposure of the US population to environmental tobacco smoke: The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988 to 1991. JAMA. 1996;275:1233–1240.
Schuster MA, Franke T, Pham CB. Smoking patterns of household members and visitors in homes with children in the United States. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2002;156:1094–1100.
Sleiman M, Gundel LA, Pankow JF, et al. Formation of carcinogens indoors by surface-mediated reactions of nicotine with nitrous acid, leading to potential thirdhand smoke hazards. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Apr 13;107(15):6576-81.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 11th Report on Carcinogens. Public Health Service — National Toxicology Program. 2005. Accessed at: http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/ntpweb/index.cfm?objectid=035E5806-F735-FE81-FF769DFE5509AF0A on November 2, 2010.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The Health Consequences of Involuntary Exposure to Tobacco Smoke: A Report of the Surgeon General. Washington, DC: Department of Health and Human Services; 2006. Accessed at www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/secondhandsmoke/ on November 2, 2010..
Winickoff JP, Friebely J, Tanski SE, et al. “Beliefs about the health effects of “thirdhand” smoke and home smoking bans.” Pediatrics. 2009;123(1):e74–79.
“Message from the State Health Officer” http://www.adph.org/news/index.asp?id=4948
National Toxicology Program. Report on Carcinogens. Eleventh Edition. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Toxicology Program, 2005.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. How Tobacco Smoke Causes Disease: The Biology and Behavioral Basis for Smoking-Attributable Disease: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2010.
National Cancer Institute. Health Effects of Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute; 1999. Smoking and Tobacco Control Monograph 10.
“Surgeon General Report: Tobacco Smoke Does Immediate Damage,” http://www.cnn.com/2010/HEALTH/12/09/tobacco.risk/index.html
“Hard Facts,” http://nwatfc.org/facts/
“The Health Consequences of Involuntary Exposure to Tobacco Smoke: A Report of the Surgeon General,” http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/secondhandsmoke/report/
“Smoking-Attributable Mortality, Years of Potential Life Lost, and Productivity Losses — United States, 2000—2004,” http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5745a3.htm
“Coverage for Tobacco Use Cessation Treatment,” http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/quit_smoking/cessation/pdfs/reimbursement_brochure.pdf
“The Economic Impact of Florida’s Smoke-free Workplace Law, Bureau of Economic and Business Research,” Warrington College of Business Administration, University of Florida, June 25, 2004, http://www.tobaccoscam.ucsf.edu/pdf/109-Florida+Economic+Impact+Final+Report.pdf
Zagat, Press Release, “Zagat 2004 New York City Restaurant Survey Finds Local Dining Economy in Comeback Mode,” October 20, 2003
Washington State Department of Revenue Press Release, “Businesses bounce back from smoking ban,” June 10, 2008, http://dor.wa.gov/content/aboutus/newsroom/html/smokingban.aspx
“Summary of University of Arkansas Economic Impact Study 2010,” http://cleartheairarkansas.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/09/Summary-of-University-of-Arkansas-Economic-Impact-Study-2010.pdf
Musich S, Napier D, Edington D. The association of health risks with workers’ compensation costs. JOEM. 2001;43(6):534-541
“Why Your Business Should Be Smoke Free,” http://www.championsforhealth.org/why-your-business-should-be-smoke-free.php
Action on Smoking and Health, March 1994, http://health.mo.gov/living/wellness/tobacco/smokingandtobacco/pdf/EmployersToolkit.pdf
Halpern, M.T.; Shikiar, R.; Rentz, A.M.; Khan, Z.M., “Impact of smoking status on workplace absenteeism and productivity,” Tobacco Control 10(3): 233-238, September 2001.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Clean Indoor Air Regulations Fact Sheet.” National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. April 11, 2001.
“The dollars (and sense) benefits of having a smoke-free workplace,” Michigan Department of Community Health, 2000.